Hash trie 2012-08-10

Tries are very useful data structures if you need to perform longest subprefix matching. Unfortunately, simple implementations uses a lot of memory, which is often solved by collapsing common prefixes in a single node (like a Radix tree). However, this adds to the implementation complexity, which is something I like to avoid.

Lwan’s original trie implementation required 256 pointers per trie node (one per possible byte). This is not only wasteful, but also meant lwan would get a lot of cache misses.

Instead of just using a Radix tree, I decided to keep the same basic implementation but lower the number of pointers per node to just 8 – and hash each key byte by calculating `MOD 8`. This was a very cheap optimization, which works pretty well.

But this optimization leads to the same problem found in hash tables: collisions. The problem is minimized by the fact that collisions can only happen when using keys with the same length – which is uncommon in the basic use case for these tries in lwan: matching URLs by their prefix to determine which handler to call.

Nonetheless, this is easily fixed by adding a linked list to each leaf node. To avoid having to perform one last string comparison if there’s just one node in this linked list (and hence no collisions), lwan’s trie assume it was a match.

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